Level 2
Unit No:
Guided learning hours:
24 hours

Assessment Guidance

Portfolio of Evidence.

Unit Learning Outcomes


Know why an understanding of anatomy and physiology is important in sport.

Learning Outcome 1: Indicative Content 

Why professionals in sport need to know about anatomy & physiology: (e.g. physiotherapist to treat injuries/conditions of the body systems, fitness instructor/personal trainer to help improve fitness of different body systems, doctor to diagnose a condition within a body system and decide how to treat it).

How the structure and function of two systems interrelate: (e.g. skeletal and muscular to produce movement, cardiovascular and respiratory in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide around the body).

How one or more sports professions applies a knowledge of human body systems in their job role: (e.g. personal trainer, fitness instructor, physiotherapist, sports coach, professional athlete, teacher, sports rehabilitation, doctor, strength and conditioning coach).

Research sports professions and explain how individuals in this profession apply knowledge of anatomy and physiology.

Assessment Criteria

  • 1.1
    Explain why professionals working in sport need to know about anatomy and physiology.


Know about the skeletal system.

Learning Outcome 2: Indicative Content 

Structure of the skeletal system: i.e. cranium, clavicle, scapula, sternum, ribs, vertebral column (Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx), humerus, ulna, radius, pelvis, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges.

Function of the skeletal system: i.e. shape, support, protection, movement, blood production, storage of minerals.

Types of joint and location: i.e. fibrous/immovable (skull), cartilaginous/slightly moveable (vertebral column), synovial/freely moveable (knee/shoulder), types of synovial joint and location: i.e. hinge (knee), ball and socket (shoulder/hip), condyloid (wrist), gliding (hand), saddle (thumb), pivot (neck), structure of a synovial joint (e.g. joint capsule, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, ligament, hyaline cartilage).

Movement at joints: i.e. flexion, extension, rotation, abduction, adduction, examples from at least 3 sporting actions using 1-2 joints (e.g. press up, bicep curl) and examples from at least 3 sporting actions using more than 2 joints (e.g. squat, kicking a rugby conversion).

Assessment Criteria

  • 2.1
    Describe the structure and function of the skeletal system.
  • 2.2
    Describe the different types of joint and the movement associated with each.


Know about the muscle system.

Learning Outcome 3: Indicative Content 

Major muscles, individual functions and examples of when used in sport: i.e. location of major muscles in the body to include: biceps, triceps, deltoid, trapezius, latissimus dorsi, pectorals, abdominals, obliques, quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius, erector spinae, gluteals.

For example- the biceps muscle flexes the elbow joint and is used to draw back an arrow in archery.

Types of muscle, location, structure and function: i.e. cardiac, smooth, skeletal.

Types of muscle contraction and examples from sport and exercise: i.e. concentric, eccentric, isometric.

Antagonistic muscle action: i.e. antagonistic pairs and how work together to produce movement.

Assessment Criteria

  • 3.1
    Identify the major muscles in the body.
  • 3.2
    Describe different types of muscle and muscle movement.


Know about the cardiovascular system.

Learning Outcome 4: Indicative Content 

Structure of the cardiac system: i.e. location and function of right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle, tricuspid valve, bicuspid valve, semi-lunar valves, septum.

Structure of the vascular system: i.e. location and function of pulmonary vein, vena cavae, pulmonary artery, aorta.

Structure and function of the blood vessels: i.e. structure and function of veins, arteries, capillaries to include similarities and differences between the three blood vessels.

Function of the cardiac system: i.e. blow flow through the heart in one direction.

Function of the vascular system: i.e blood flow to the body and lungs, transport of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide, thermoregulation (vasodilation and vasoconstriction).

Changes to the cardiovascular system during exercise (e.g. heart rate, temperature, blood flow to the muscles, blood flow to other parts of the body).

Assessment Criteria

  • 4.1
    Describe the structure and function of the cardiovascular system.


Know about the respiratory system.

Learning Outcome 5: Indicative Content 

Structure of the respiratory system: location and function of the following structures nasal passages, epiglottis, trachea, larynx, pharynx, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, intercostal muscles, diaphragm.

Function of the respiratory system: i.e. how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood, mechanics of breathing during inspiration and expiration to include what happens to the ribs, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, partial pressure changes, direction of gases.

Function of the respiratory system: i.e. gaseous exchange at the lungs and the muscles to include diffusion of gases and partial pressure changes.

Changes to the respiratory system during exercise (e.g. increased breathing rate, increased tidal volume and minute ventilation).

Assessment Criteria

  • 5.1
    Describe the structure and function of the respiratory system.