Level 2
Unit No:
Guided learning hours:
24 hours

Assessment Guidance

Portfolio of Evidence.

Unit Learning Outcomes


Know about injuries and illness associated with sports participation.

Learning Outcome 1: Indicative Content 

Different types of injury associated with sports participation.

  • Acute – Acute injuries occur due to sudden trauma to the tissue, with the symptoms of acute injuries presenting themselves almost immediately
  • Overuse - Overuse injuries occur over a period of time, usually due to repetitive loading of the tissue, with symptoms presenting gradually

Common acute injuries include:

  • sprains - a partial or complete tear of a ligament with symptoms of pain, swelling, bruising, loss of function.
  • strains - when a muscle becomes overstretched and tears. Strains are often caused through excessive physical activity or effort without correctly warming up.
  • fractures - a crack or full break in bone/s. Can be closed or open where the bone punctures the skin. Symptoms of intense pain, loss of function, swelling, bruising, and possible deformity
  • dislocations - partial (subluxation) or total (luxation) separation of a joint. Most commonly affects ball and socket joints. Symptoms include pain, bruising, swelling, loss of function.

Common overuse injuries include:

  • Osteoarthritis degeneration of joint cartilage and the underlying bone. Causes pain and stiffness, especially in the hip, knee, and thumb joints.
  • Bursitis inflammation of the bursa, usually in shoulder, hip, and heel. Symptoms of local tenderness, pain and swelling are common.
  • Tendinopathy refers to a range of tendon injuries with associated local pain upon movement. Common sites are patella, rotator cuff, wrist flexor, and achilles tendons.

Different types and signs of illness associated with sports participation.

  • Heart attacks occur in many sports, especially ones with a lot of running. The cause of a heart attack is usually a blockage of the blood vessels of the heart. This stops the blood flow all over the body as the heart is neither supplying nor receiving blood and makes the heart beat irregular
  • Asthma a respiratory condition marked by spasms in the bronchi of the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing. It usually results from an allergic reaction or other forms of hypersensitivity
  • Osteoporosis a medical condition in which bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue, typically as a result of hormonal changes, or deficiency of calcium or vitamin D
  • Fibromyalgia musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and tenderness in localised areas

Effect on sports performers of different types of injury and/or illness.

Physiological response:

  • the clotting Mechanism (Coagulation)
  • the Inflammatory Response
  • scar tissue and remodeling process
  • hematoma

  • Psychological responses:
    • Shock and denial of receiving the injury
    • anger
    • anxiety
    • depression
    • frustration

Assessment Criteria

  • 1.1
    Describe different types of injury associated with sports participation.
  • 1.2
    Describe different types and signs of illness associated with sports participation.
  • 1.3
    Outline the effect on sports performers of different types of injury and/or illness.


Know about the causes of sports injuries and ways to reduce these.

Learning Outcome 2: Indicative Content 

Causes for different, common sports injuries

  • Intrinsic - physical aspect of the athlete’s body that can cause injury
  • Extrinsic - risk factor external to the body, that causes injury

Extrinsic risk factors can be categorised into four areas:


incorrect technique

environmental factors

safety hazards

Intrinsic factors can be categorised in to three areas:

  • training effects
  • individual variables
  • postural defects.

Ways to reduce the risk of sports injury


  • Have up to date knowledge of the sport and their athletes
  • Should adapt coaching to ability/ age/ fitness level of the participant
  • Be fully qualified for the level of performance/athletes
  • Fully prepare and train athletes effectively


  • A risk assessment/ hazard awareness must be completed before each session
  • Playing surface
  • Weather Conditions


  • The correct equipment should be used for the activity
  • All equipment should be used safely and correctly following appropriate guidelines
  • The size of the equipment should be linked to the age group
  • All equipment should be regularly checked and maintained

Organisations follow health and safety legislation in sport, exercise, health and leisure, for example:

  • Health and Safety Executive (HSE),
  • employer’s responsibilities (e.g. Public Liability insurance)
  • fire safety
  • Equality Act 2010, i.e. access of facilities
  • Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR), i.e. what must be reported, types of reportable incidents, recording requirements,
  • manual handling
  • equal opportunities (EOPS)
  • Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002
  • Duty of care, legal and ethical responsibilities when leading activities.

Assessment Criteria

  • 2.1
    Outline the causes for different, common sports injuries including those associated with
    a) performer’s own actions
    b) external factors.
  • 2.2
    Outline ways to reduce the risk of sports injury for self, through own actions.
  • 2.3
    Describe ways in which organisations apply health and safety legislation and regulations to reduce risk of injury to participants in sporting activity.


Know about treatments for sports injuries and illness.

  • Learning Outcome 3: Indicative Content 

Treatments for common sports injuries

  • RICE treatment for strains, sprains and bruises.

R - Rest: stop activity to prevent further injury.

I - Ice: apply an ice pack to reduce blood flow, pain and swelling.

C - Compression: wrap a bandage tightly around the area to reduce internal bleeding and swelling.

E - Elevation: raise the injury above heart level to reduce swelling and throbbing.

RICE treatment lessens the pain and helps to reduce injury recovery time.

  • Cuts – dry the skin around the cut and cover with a clean dressing.
  • Grazes – check for dirt within the graze. Cover with a specialist non-stick dressing.
  • Blisters – do not break the blister. Cover it with a specialist plaster that stays in place until it falls off naturally. This eases pain and protects the area from further damage.

Sudden illnesses

  • Dehydration/Hypothermia - Move sufferer to a warmer, sheltered area, provide extra clothing or a survival bag, give warm drinks, keep checking for pulse and breathing
  • Unconsciousness/Concussion Follow the DRABC (Dr ABC) checklist:

D - Danger: Check that you and the sufferer are not in danger. Make sure everyone is safe.

R - Response: Shake and shout - is the person unconscious?

A - Airway: Check that the airway is clear.

B - Breathing: Check that the sufferer is breathing.

C - Circulation: Check for a pulse.

Assessment Criteria

  • 3.1
    Describe treatments for common sports injuries.
  • 3.2
    Outline appropriate immediate responses to different types of sports injury, accident or sudden illness.